Crime is dealt as a phenomenon at individual or social level in the field of study called Criminology. Approaching from a socio-scientific point of view, Criminology involves the study of various forms of crime, the reasons working behind an incidence of crime, and its consequences. Regulation of crime by Governmental authorities also comes under the purview of this subject.
Being an interdisciplinary subject, it draws heavily from the fields of Psychology, Sociology and Law. Raffaele Garofalo, an Italian Law Professor, was the first person to coin the term “criminology”. With the rising numbers of crime and rapid diversification in the nature of it, criminology is gaining importance in today’s society.
In addition, fast changes in the approach and mode of investigation of the policing authorities has led to the need for better understanding of the subject, thus opening up growth opportunities for a career in criminology.
Various institutes offer criminology courses in India. A few major areas of interest in this field of study are -
- Causes of crime
- Prevention of crime
- Crime Statistics
- Criminal Behavior
- Evaluation of criminal justice agencies
- Sociology of Law
- Criminal careers and desistance
Qualifications for Criminology Courses in India:
Both undergraduate (B.A/B.S.C ) and Post Graduate ( M.A/M.S.C ) courses in Criminology are offered by various institutes in India. The basic requirement for getting admission to an undergraduate course is passing the XIIth standard with either Arts or Science.
For admission to a postgraduate course, one has to be a graduate with science or arts subjects.
Institutes offering criminology courses in India include -
- Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Narayan National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, Delhi
- Punjab University, Chandigarh
- Tata Institute of Social Science, Mumbai
- University of Madras, Chepauk, Chennai
- Utkal University, Bhubaneswar
- University of Jammu, Jammu Tawi
- University of Lucknow
- University of Pune Ganeshkind, Pune
Benefits of Studying Criminology:
With the increasing incidences of crime, the study of causes and consequences of such acts are becoming more and more relevant in today’s society. It is but natural for a young mind to get interested in the study of deviations in human nature. Knowledge of criminology can be applied to various professions and academic fields related to the study of the society on the whole.
Scope for a Career in Criminology in India:
After pursuing Criminology courses in India, you can apply for a variety of jobs. Graduates and post graduates in this field can be appointed as teachers of criminology, legal studies, Law and sociology. A career in Criminology can be pursued in public and private sector companies or social welfare departments dealing with environmental crimes and human rights. NGOs, research organizations, private security and detective agencies also recruit criminology professionals. They can also find jobs of counseling and rehabilitating offenders in the prisons.
Scope for a Career in Criminology Abroad:
Job prospects of students of criminology courses in India are very bright abroad. Usually most criminologists find jobs as police officers and state medical examiners. They can also find jobs in the following roles -
- Crime intelligence analyst
- Law reform researcher
- Community corrections coordinator
- Regional crime prevention coordinator
- Drug policy advisor
- Consumer advocate
- Environment protection analyst