Forensic sciences or forensics is the application of various scientific methods and principles to investigate criminal and civil actions which are of interest to the legal systems. All the clues collected from a crime scene are analyzed by forensic scientists in a crime laboratory and are converted into evidences worth producing in legal courts.
Physical evidences may include body fluids like blood and saliva, hair, impressions of tyres and shoes, finger prints and foot prints are also valuable evidences. In civil cases such as proving the validity of a signature, forensic sciences can be applied.
The forensic scientists work in close quarter with the police to provide information in solving a case. There are a number of institutes that offer forensic science courses in India.
There are various subdivisions of forensic sciences, they are:
- Forensic archeology
- Forensic biology
- Forensic economics
- Forensic engineering
- Forensic epistemology
- Forensic linguistics
- Forensic psychology
- Forensic serology
- Forensic anthropology
- Forensic computing or digital forensics
For pursuing a post graduation in Forensic Sciences one has to have a B.A or B.S.C degree preferably securing a first division. Students with a science background are preferred.
An MBBS degree along with a specialization in forensic sciences is required for one to perform post mortem on dead bodies. Research work can also be done by students of forensic sciences who have secured 60% marks in post graduation.
Some institutes which offer courses in forensic sciences are
- Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Narayan National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, Delhi
- Dr.Harisingh Gour Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gour Nagar, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh – 470 003
- Forensic Sciences Department, “Forensic House”, 30-A, Kamarajar Salai, Mylapore, Chennai 600004
- University of Delhi, Delhi 110007
- Anna University, Chennai 600025
- Institute of Criminology & Forensic Science, 4-E Jhandewalan Extn, Rani Jhansi Road, New Delhi 110056
- University of Lucknow, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow- 226007
- Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Hyderabad, CFIs Complex, Ramanathapur, Hyderabad 500013
- Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Chandigarh, CFIs Complex, Sector 36A, Chandigarh 160036
- Central Forensic Laboratory, Kolkata, CFIs Complex, 30 Gorachand Road, Kolkata 700014
Modern crime detection methods are helping the police to crack cases which were unsolvable even a few decades ago. Forensic sciences are playing a huge role in helping the law and government establishments in solving cases involving victims whose mutilated bodies have almost been decomposed. White collar crimes are also being solved by forensic scientists. For students of younger generation with adventurous spirits forensic sciences are producing opportunities galore.
Scope in India
The main employment generating areas of students of forensic sciences is the police force, law enforcing agencies, legal systems and both government and private investigative offices. Specialization in various branches of forensic sciences like forensic anthropology, forensic archeology, forensic serology, provides a candidate with a job in their fields of specialization.
There are enough scopes for career growth even in foreign countries. Medical examiner, crime laboratory analyst, crime scene examiner, forensic engineer are the job prospects abroad. Forensic scientists also work for making psychological profiles of offenders by analyzing the crime scene and the crimes committed.