Mumbai has not only been the financial capital of India since the early 19th century, the capital city of Maharashtra has also been home to prominent education institutes since pre independence. There were as many schools in Bombay before independence as the number of villages. Printed books were available in the city since the year 1579 when students from every section of society could attend school. However, the literacy rate of Mumbai was as low as 11 % at the end of 1947.
Mumbai is called the ‘Research Hub of India’ also. Renowned institutes like the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) are located in the city. The colleges of Mumbai feature at the top of the rankings list brought out by media houses and education bodies every academic year.
Many notable personalities have completed their education in Mumbai, including political leader Dr B R Ambedkar, educator Dadabhai Naoroji, physicist Homi J Bhabha, nationalist Lokmanya Tilak, musician Zakir Hussain and many more.
School Education in Mumbai
The municipality of Mumbai controls and manages more than 1,000 secondary and primary schools for the education of children residing in the city. The government of Maharashtra provides for compulsory education of the child up to the sixth grade; parents however have to pay for the textbooks and school uniforms of their wards. The initiative taken by the government has led to a high literacy rate in Mumbai. Marathi, Hindi and English are the chief mediums of instruction used in Mumbai schools, but Urdu is also used in several areas, especially in schools run by private Muslim bodies or by a Muslim individual.
The Maharashtra State SSC Board, the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) and the All India Indian Certificate of Secondary education (ICSE) are the three board syllabi used by schools in Mumbai. While public institutions mostly follow the State Board and CBSE curriculum, private establishments generally follow the ICSE curriculum. Renowned educationists like Father S Alemida and Dr Nicholas Correa have played a major role in improving the school education scenario in Mumbai. While S Alemida introduced sports as a compulsory part of school curriculum in Mumbai, Nicholas Correa introduced the concept of teacher friendly schooling and child friendly learning in the city schools.
There are 58 schools in Mumbai enjoying ICSE affiliation. 36 schools are affiliated to the CBSE board. 1,191 schools are run by the municipal authorities of Mumbai. In total, there are more than 3000 higher secondary schools in Mumbai. Some prominent schools of the city are Apeejay School, St Xavier’s High School, Lilavati Podar High School, Dhirubhai Ambani International School and Don Bosco High School.
Higher Education in Mumbai
Mumbai has the oldest educational institutes in India as the city was the chosen destination for studies in the British era also. Also, since Mumbai is the commercial capital of the country, students like to study in the colleges & universities here so that a job may be available immediately after studies.
The second best college in Mumbai in terms of number of applications received every academic year is the Elphinstone College. Since 1856, the college has been offering courses in Arts, Commerce and Science to national and international students. The Elphinstone College campus served as makeshift classrooms for the University of Bombay, as the college started a year before the establishment of the university. The college also has facilities for 10+2 level of school studies under the higher secondary board of education. The 10+2 section is known as junior college, while the undergraduate section is called senior college. The TechTsar (King of Technology) annual fest organized by the IT department of Elphinstone College is widely acclaimed.
University of Mumbai
Established in the year 1857, the University of Bombay was set up as an examining and affiliating body on the patterns of the University of London. The institute got its present name in the year 1996. Today, the University of Mumbai not only has administrative functions, it has entered the field of teaching offering undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral degrees to Indian and foreign students. This university enjoys a five star ranking by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council. The QS World University Rankings placed the University of Mumbai in the 451st position among the top 500 universities of the world in the year 2011. The central Jawaharlal Nehru Library of the University of Mumbai is home to more than 850,000 books including journals & theses on India’s history, rare manuscripts, census records, encyclopedias and microfilms.
St Xavier’s College
This is a private college of Mumbai founded in the year 1869. St Xavier’s received five star accreditation by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council and now offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in subjects of the Arts, Science and Commerce streams. St Xavier’s College has featured on the first position among the best Arts colleges in India in a survey released by national magazine India Today in the year 2010 and 2011. In the year 2010, the college was ranked second best for pursuing studies in Science and Commerce in India. The UGC has awarded St Xavier’s with the ‘College with a Potential for Excellence’. It became the second college in Mumbai to be granted the autonomous status by the University Grants Commission in May 2010. St Xavier’s is known not only for its quality education but also for the fact that the building has been identified as a heritage structure of India.
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR)
This is a deemed university of India that provides research opportunities in the fields of mathematics and sciences. The Department of Atomic Energy of the Indian government manages the research programs in biological and natural sciences, mathematics and theoretical computer science. Each subject of research is conducted in separate schools under the TIFR. There are four schools where Ph.D students take admission. They are the School of Mathematics, the School of Biological Sciences, the School of Natural Sciences and the School of Technology & Computer Science. Homi J Bhabha and M S Raghunathan are some of the notable alumni. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay – IIT Bombay is the second oldest IIT campus of India. This world famous scientific and technology research college of India was set up in the year 1958. It offers degrees in 14 disciplines and 10 multi disciplinary subjects.
Narsee Monjee College of Commerce & Economics
Popularly called the N M College, this higher education institute enjoys a B++ grade given by NAAC. Other than management and commerce subjects, students can also opt for travel and tourism courses in this college.
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
The BARC is the primary nuclear research facility of India. Established as Atomic Energy Establishment in 1954, the institute was given its present name after the death of Homi Bhabha. The nuclear reactors of this institute are used for nuclear power research programs by the Indian government.
Sir J. J. College of Architecture
This is the first architecture school of Asia established in 1913. The school participated in the United States Agency for International Development ECO program in 2008.
K J Somaiya Institute of Management Studies and Research
The college which was established in the year 1959 has featured in the top 15 list of best business schools of India every year in surveys conducted by leading media houses.
Government Law College
GLC Mumbai is the oldest law school of India. The college offers graduate and postgraduate degrees in law and has produced some of the most famous people of India, like President Pratibha Patil, late Prime Minister Morarji Desai and Chief Justice of India S N Kapadia.
Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies
Established in the year 1965, this institute is most famous for its contemporary postgraduate management programs. It is the third oldest business school of India.
S P Jain Institute of Management and Research (SPJIMR)
The wall Street Journal has declared this business school of India as one among the 10 best in this country. Set up in 1981, SPJIMR offers a two – year MBA program and a one – year PGDM program.
Educational Statistics of Mumbai
|Total Literacy Rate||85.6 %|
|Male Literacy Rate||90 %|
|Female Literacy Rate||82.7 %|
|No. of People called Literates in Mumbai||2551669|
|No. of General Studies Colleges||215|
|No. of Engineering & Technical Institutes||67|
|No. of Management Institutes||46|
|No. of Applied Arts Colleges||19|
|No. of Law Study Centers||14|
|No. of Universities||12|
Major Universities in Mumbai
- University of Mumbai
- Homi Bhabha National Institute
- Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
- Narsee Monjee Institute of Management & Higher Studies
- Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
- University of Petroleum and Energy Studies
- SNDT Women’s University
- Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research
- Central Institute of Fisheries Education
- International Institute for Population Sciences
Top Schools in Mumbai
- Apeejay School, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai
- Bombay Scottish School, Mahim
- Campion School, Mumbai
- Don Bosco High School, Matunga
- Elphinstone High School
- Fort Convent School, Mumbai
- Garodia International Centre for Learning
- Lakshdham High School
- St. Xavier’s High School, Fort
- Singapore International School, Mumbai
Top Colleges in Mumbai
The top colleges in different streams are as follows:
Top Engineering Colleges
- Atharva College of Engineering, Malad (West)
- Don Bosco Institute of Technology, Kurla (West)
- A C Patil College of Engineering
- Data Meghe College of Engineering, Airoli, Navi Mumbai
- K J Somaiya Institute of Engineering and Information Technology, Sion
Top Medical Colleges
- Grant Medical College
- Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College
- Topiwala National Medical College
- R A Podar Medical College
- K J Somaiya Medical College
Top MBA Colleges
- IES Management College, Bandra (West)
- St. Francis Institute of Management and Research, Borivli
- Indian Institute of Planning and Management
- Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies
- S P Jain Institute of Management and Research
Top Commerce Colleges
- Narsee Monjee College of Commerce and Economics
- Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics
- M L Dahanukar College of Commerce
- Malini Kishore Sanghvi Junior College of Commerce, Juhu – Vile Parle
- SIES College of Commerce and Economics
Top Arts and Science Colleges
- Durgadevi Saraf Junior College
- Elphinstone College
- Maharashtra College
- Maharshi Dayanand College
- Ramnarain Ruia College
Top Law Colleges
- K C Law College
- Dr Ambedkar College of Law
- Asmita College of Law
- G J Advani Law College
- Nalanda Law College
Applied Arts Colleges
- Sir J J College of Architecture
- L S Raheja College of Art, Worli
- Asmita College of Architecture, Mira Road
- Pillai’s College of Architecture, Navi Mumbai
- St Francis Institute of Art & Design
- Mahatma Gandhi Mission Dental College
- Government Dental College and Hospital
- Yerala Medical Trust Dental College and Hospital
- Terna Dental College and Hospital
- St George Dental College & Hospital
- School of Broadcasting and Communication
- University of Mumbai
- Sophia College for Women
- Mumbai College of Hotel Management and Catering Technology
- J D Institute of Fashion Technology
- International Institute of Fashion Technology
- Institute of Retail & Fashion Studies
- Sophia Shree B K Somani Polytechnic
Latest Events in the Education Sector
The most recent development in the education sector of Mumbai was the declaration that future students of management in the city will not have to sit for the CET (Common Entrance Test)for the 2012 – 2013 academic session. The CMAT scores will be accepted by all management colleges in Mumbai.
Also, the government has announced partnerships with non governmental organizations so as to ensure education for the poor and underprivileged children in Mumbai. This step will definitely help to increase the literacy rate of the city further.